Unilateral space maintainer is used when a patient is missing a primary molar. This appliance is used to hold the space so the adult tooth can be guided into the right place. It is also used prior to the permanent incisors erupting, if the patient is missing molars on both sides- 2 appliances are needed.
Bilateral Space Maintainer/ Lower Lingual Arch/ Holding Arch
This appliance is for the mandible. It reserves space when teeth are prematurely lost on the lower right and/or lower left. It is also used when two teeth are missing next to each other. This appliance also prevents the back molars from drifting forward. This appliance is generally not used until after the mandibular permanent incisors have erupted.
A distal shoe appliance can be used s a space maintainer if the first permanent molar is not yet erupted, but are not widely used because of risks of infection. Usually used with unilateral tooth loss. It has to be placed at the time of extractions and requires local anesthetic to place/remove. It also has to be replaced once the 6 year molar erupts.
Acrylic Anterior Crossbite Appliance
This appliance is used when 2 or more incisors are in crossbite on the maxilla. This gives the correct amount of pressure to protrude the upper incisors to create a positive overjet. Sometimes a removable appliance can be made.
Rapid Palate Expander
(RPE) is used to widen your palate to create room for more teeth. It is an appliance that is attached to your teeth by bands or plastic. It is expanded with a key which is turned by an adult over a given period of time usually 2-3 weeks. This appliance can be used to correct posterior crossbites and to widen an arch to make room for eruption of permanent teeth.
Quad Helix with Palatal Expander
Spreads the back teeth apart with a spring. See RPE for further expansion benefits. This appliance can be used to correct posterior crossbites and to widen an arch to make room for eruption of permanent teeth.
Transpalatal Arch (TPA)
Appliance for the maxilla. Used when patients are missing their primary first or second molars or adjacent teeth in the top arch. Used to hold arch after an expander has been used.
Habit appliances are used to repress and eventually eliminate the habit of tongue thrusting and thumb sucking which causes anterior flare. They are also used to help intrude posterior teeth. Habit cribs can be added to almost any appliance or as a separate fixed appliance (recommended to reduce patient compliance).